About

The manuscript, Codex Paulinus Wirziburgensis, contains the Latin text of the epistles of St. Paul. Marginal and interlinear glosses explaining this text have been added to the codex in three distinguishable scribal hands. Dating from about the middle of the eighth century, these glosses comprise one of the earliest large bodies of text written in Irish.

The purpose of this site is to make to make the Würzburg Irish glosses available in digital format. The digital text is based on the edition of the glosses available in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, Vol. 1 (Stokes and Strachan, 1901). Here the editors present 3,501 glosses which include Irish content, noting however, that further glosses have apparently been lost due to the age of the manuscript, and the process of its binding.

Copyright © 2019 National University of Ireland, Galway

Reuse of any of the contents of this database is licensed under: CC BY 4.0

The following resources are referenced throughout this website's commentary on the glosses:

  • Bergin, Osborn, “Notes on the Würzburg glosses”, Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 17 (1928): 223–224.
  • Kavanagh, Séamus, and Dagmar S. Wodtko [ed.], A lexicon of the Old Irish glosses in the Würzburg manuscript of the epistles of St. Paul, Mitteilungen der Prähistorischen Kommission 45, Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2001.
  • Ó Néill, Pádraig P., “The Old-Irish glosses of the prima manus in Würzburg, m.p.th.f.12: text and context reconsidered”, in: Richter, Michael, and Jean-Michel Picard (eds.), Ogma: essays in Celtic studies in honour of Próinséas Ní Chatháin, Dublin: Four Courts, 2002. 230–242.
  • Stokes, Whitley, and John Strachan (eds.), Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus: a collection of Old-Irish glosses, scholia, prose, and verse, Vol. 1: Biblical glosses and scholia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1901.
  • Stokes, Whitley, and John Strachan (eds.), Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus: a collection of Old-Irish glosses, scholia, prose, and verse, Vol. 2: Non-Biblical glosses and scholia; Old-Irish prose; names of persons and places; inscriptions; verse; indexes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1903.
  • A Supplement to Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, Vol. 2 (1975 repr.) pp 423-506.
  • Thurneysen, Rudolf, A Grammar of Old Irish, tr. D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin, Dublin: School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946.
  • TITUS: Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien, Online: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main. Link Here.


Any mention of "the manuscript" or "the facsimile" in the site notes section beneath a gloss should be understood to reference the digital images available on the TITUS website. Similarly, the term "TPH Supplement" is used in the site notes to reference A Supplement to Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus from the 1975 reprint of Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus Vol. 2.

The following abbreviations are also used:

  • GOI - A Grammar of Old Irish.
  • ZCP - Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie.


Where part-of-speech information is available for a gloss this site uses the following part-of-speech tags which are aligned with the Universal Dependencies tag-set:

  • ADJ: adjective
  • ADP: adposition (prepositions and conjugated prepositions)
  • ADV: adverb
  • AUX: auxiliary (copula forms)
  • CCONJ: coordinating conjunction
  • DET: determiner (definite articles, pronominal adjectives, etc.)
  • INTJ: interjection
  • NOUN: noun
  • NUM: numeral
  • PART: particle (relative particle, demonstrative particles, preverbs, etc.)
  • PRON: pronoun (independent personal, infixed, posessive, anaphoric, indefinite, reflexive, etc.)
  • PROPN: proper noun
  • PUNCT: punctuation
  • SCONJ: subordinating conjunction
  • SYM: symbol
  • VERB: verb
  • X: other